Can. 1166 Sacramentals are sacred signs which in a sense imitate the sacraments. They
signify certain effects, especially spiritual ones, and they achieve these effects through
the intercession of the Church.
Can. 1167 ß1 Only the Apostolic See can establish new sacramentals, or authentically
interpret, suppress or change existing ones.
ß2 The rites and the formulae approved by ecclesiastical authority are to be
accurately observed when celebrating or administering sacramentals.
Can. 1168 The minister of the sacramentals is a cleric who has the requisite power. In
accordance with the liturgical books and subject to the judgment of the local Ordinary,
certain sacramentals can also be administered by lay people who possess the appropriate
Can. 1169 ß1 Consecrations and dedications can be validly carried out by those who are
invested with the episcopal character, and by priests who are permitted to do so by law or
by legitimate grant.
ß2 Any priest can impart blessings, except for those reserved to the Roman Pontiff or
ß3 A deacon can impart only those blessings which are expressly permitted to him by
Can. 1170 While blessings are to be imparted primarily to Catholics, they may be given
also to catechumens and, unless there is a prohibition by the Church, even to non-Catholics.
Can. 1171 Sacred objects, set aside for divine worship by dedication or blessing, are
to be treated with reverence. They are not to be made over to secular or inappropriate
use, even though they may belong to private persons.
Can. 1172 ß1 No one may lawfully exorcise the possessed without the special and
express permission of the local Ordinary.
ß2 This permission is to be granted by the local Ordinary only to a priest who is
endowed with piety, knowledge, prudence and integrity of life.
Can. 1173 In fulfillment of the priestly office of Christ, the Church celebrates the
liturgy of the hours, wherein it listens to God speaking to his people and recalls the
mystery of salvation. In this way, the Church praises God without ceasing, in song and
prayer, and it intercedes with him for the salvation of the whole world.
Can. 1174 ß1 Clerics are obliged to recite the liturgy of the hours, in accordance
with Can. 276, ß2, n. 3; members of institutes of consecrated life and of societies of
apostolic life are obliged in accordance with their constitutions.
ß2 Others also of Christ's faithful are earnestly invited, according to circumstances,
to take part in the liturgy of the hours as an action of the Church.
Can. 1175 In carrying out the liturgy of the hours, each particular hour is, as far as
possible, to be recited at the time assigned to it.
Can. 1176 ß1 Christ's faithful who have died are to be given a Church funeral
according to the norms of law.
ß2 Church funerals are to be celebrated according to the norms of the liturgical
books. In these funeral rites the Church prays for the spiritual support of the dead, it
honors their bodies, and at the same time it brings to the living the comfort of hope.
ß3 The Church earnestly recommends that the pious custom of burial be retained; but it
does not forbid cremation, unless this is chosen for reasons which are contrary to
Can. 1177 ß1 The funeral of any deceased member of the faithful should normally be
celebrated in the church of that person's proper parish.
ß2 However, any member of the faithful, or those in charge of the deceased person's
funeral, may choose another church; this requires the consent of whoever is in charge of
that church and a notification to the proper parish priest of the deceased.
ß3 When death has occurred outside the person's proper parish, and the body is not
returned there, and another church has not been chosen, the funeral rites are to be
celebrated in the church of the parish where the death occurred, unless another church is
determined by particular law.
Can. 1178 The funeral ceremonies of a diocesan Bishop are to be celebrated in his own
cathedral church, unless he himself has chosen another church.
Can. 1179 Normally, the funerals of religious or of members of a society of apostolic
life are to be celebrated in their proper church or oratory: by the Superior, if the
institute or society is a clerical one; otherwise, by the chaplain.
Can. 1180 ß1 If a parish has its own cemetery, the deceased faithful are to be buried
there, unless another cemetery has lawfully been chosen by the deceased person, or by
those in charge of that person's burial.
ß2 All may, however, choose their cemetery of burial unless prohibited by law from
Can. 1181 The provisions of Can. 1264 are to be observed in whatever concerns the
offerings made on the occasion of funerals. Moreover, care is to be taken that at funerals
there is to be no preference of persons, and that the poor are not deprived of proper
Can. 1182 After the burial an entry is to be made in the register of the dead, in
accordance with particular law.
Can. 1183 ß1 As far as funeral rites are concerned, catechumens are to be reckoned
among Christ's faithful.
ß2 Children whose parents had intended to have them baptized but who died before
baptism, may be allowed Church funeral rites by the local Ordinary.
ß3 Provided their own minister is not available, baptized persons belonging to a
non-Catholic Church or ecclesial community may, in accordance with the prudent judgment
of the local Ordinary, be allowed Church funeral rites, unless it is established that they
did not wish this.
Can. 1184 ß1 Church funeral rites are to be denied to the following, unless they gave
some signs of repentance before death:
1ƒ notorious apostates, heretics and schismatics;
2ƒ those who for anti‚christian motives chose that their bodies be cremated;
3ƒ other manifest sinners to whom a Church funeral could not be granted without public
scandal to the faithful.
ß2 If any doubt occurs, the local Ordinary is to be consulted and his judgment
Can. 1185 Any form of funeral Mass is also to be denied to a person who has been
excluded from a Church funeral.
Can. 1186 To foster the sanctification of the people of God, the Church commends to the
special and filial veneration of Christ's faithful the Blessed Mary ever‚Virgin, the
Mother of God, whom Christ constituted the Mother of all. The Church also promotes the
true and authentic cult of the other Saints, by whose example the faithful are edified and
by whose intercession they are supported.
Can. 1187 Only those servants of God may be venerated by public cult who have been
numbered by ecclesiastical authority among the Saints or the Blessed.
Can. 1188 The practice of exposing sacred images in churches for the veneration of the
faithful is to be retained. However, these images are to be displayed in moderate numbers
and in suitable fashion, so that the Christian people are not disturbed, nor is occasion
given for less than appropriate devotion.
Can. 1189 The written permission of the Ordinary is required to restore precious images
needing repair: that is, those distinguished by reason of age, art or cult, which are
exposed in churches and oratories to the veneration of the faithful. Before giving such
permission, the Ordinary is to seek the advice of experts.
Can. 1190 ß1 It is absolutely wrong to sell sacred relics.
ß2 Distinguished relics, and others which are held in great veneration by the people,
may not validly be in any way alienated nor transferred on a permanent basis, without the
permission of the Apostolic See.
ß3 The provision of ß2 applies to images which are greatly venerated in any church by
Can. 1191 ß1 A vow is a deliberate and free promise made to God, concerning some good
which is possible and better. The virtue of religion requires that it be fulfilled.
ß2 Unless they are prohibited by law, all who have an appropriate use of reason are
capable of making a vow.
ß3 A vow made as a result of grave and unjust fear or of deceit is by virtue of the
law itself invalid.
Can. 1192 ß1 A vow is public if it is accepted in the name of the Church by a lawful
Superior; otherwise, it is private.
ß2 It is solemn if it is recognized by the Church as such; otherwise, it is simple.
ß3 It is personal if it promises an action by the person making the vow; real, if it
promises some thing; mixed, if it has both a personal and a real aspect.
Can. 1193 Of its nature a vow obliges only the person who makes it.
Can. 1194 A vow ceases by lapse of the time specified for the fulfillment of the
obligation, or by a substantial change in the matter promised, or by cessation of a
condition upon which the vow depended or of the purpose of the vow, or by dispensation, or
Can. 1195 A person who has power over the matter of a vow can suspend the obligation of
the vow for such time as the fulfillment of the vow would affect that person adversely.
Can. 1196 Besides the Roman Pontiff, the following can dispense from private vows,
provided the dispensation does not injure the acquired rights of others;
1ƒ the local Ordinary and the parish priest, in respect of all their own subjects and
also of peregrini;
2ƒ the Superior of a religious institute or of a society of apostolic life, if these
are clerical and of pontifical right, in respect of members, novices and those who reside
day and night in a house of the institute or society;
3ƒ those to whom the faculty of dispensing has been delegated by the Apostolic See or
by the local Ordinary.
Can. 1197 What has been promised by private vow can be commuted into something better
or equally good by the person who made the vow. It can be commuted into something less
good by one who has authority to dispense in accordance with Can. 1196.
Can. 1198 Vows taken before religious profession are suspended as long as the person
who made the vow remains in the religious institute.
Can. 1199 ß1 An oath is the invocation of the divine Name as witness to the truth. It
cannot be taken except in truth, judgment and justice.
ß2 An oath which is required or accepted by the canons cannot validly be taken by
Can. 1200 ß1 A person who freely swears on oath to do something is specially obliged
by the virtue of religion to fulfill that which he or she asserted by the oath.
ß2 An oath extorted by deceit, force or grave fear is by virtue of the law itself
Can. 1201 ß1 A promissory oath is determined by the nature and condition of the act to
which it is attached.
ß2 An act which directly threatens harm to others or is prejudicial to the public good
or to eternal salvation, is in no way reinforced by an oath sworn to do that act.
Can. 1202 ß1 The obligation of a promissory oath ceases:
1ƒ if it is remitted by the person in whose favor the oath was sworn;
2ƒ if what was sworn is substantially changed or, because of altered circumstances,
becomes evil or completely irrelevant, or hinders a greater good;
3ƒ if the purpose or the condition ceases under which the oath may have been made;
4ƒ by dispensation or commutation in accordance with Can. 1203.
Can. 1203 Those who can suspend, dispense or commute a vow have, in the same measure,
the same power over a promissory oath. But if dispensation from an oath would tend to harm
others and they refuse to remit the obligation, only the Apostolic See can dispense the
Can. 1204 An oath is subject to strict interpretation, in accordance with the law and
with the intention of the person taking the oath or, if that person acts deceitfully, in
accordance with the intention of the person in whose presence the oath is taken.