Can. 124 ß1 For the validity of a juridical act, it is required that it be performed
by a person who is legally capable, and it must contain those elements which constitute
the essence of the act, as well as the formalities and requirements which the law
prescribes for the validity of the act.
ß2 A juridical act which, as far as its external elements are concerned, is properly
performed, is presumed to be valid.
Can. 125 ß1 An act is invalid if performed as a result of force imposed from outside
on a person who was quite unable to resist it.
ß2 An act performed as a result of fear which is grave and unjustly inflicted, or as a
result of deceit, is valid, unless the law provides otherwise. However, it can be
rescinded by a court judgment, either at the instance of the injured party or that
party's successors in law, or ex officio.
Can. 126 An act is invalid when performed as a result of ignorance or of error which
concerns the substance of the act, or which amounts to a condition sine qua non; otherwise
it is valid, unless the law provides differently. But an act done as a result of ignorance
or error can give rise to a rescinding action in accordance with the law.
Can. 127 ß1 When the law prescribes that, in order to perform a juridical act, a
Superior requires the consent or the advice of some college or group of persons, the
college or group must be convened in accordance with can. 166, unless, if there is
question of seeking advice only, particular or proper law provides otherwise. For the
validity of the act, it is required that the consent be obtained of an absolute majority
of those present, or that the advice of all be sought.
ß2 When the law prescribes that, in order to perform a juridical act, a Superior
requires the consent or advice of certain persons as individuals:
1ƒ if consent is required, the Superior's act is invalid if the Superior does not seek
the consent of those persons, or acts against the vote of all or of any of them;
2ƒ if advice is required, the Superior's act is invalid if the Superior does not hear
those persons. The Superior is not in any way bound to accept their vote, even if it is
unanimous; nevertheless, without what is, in his or her judgment, an overriding reason,
the Superior is not to act against their vote, especially if it is a unanimous one.
ß3 All whose consent or advice is required are obliged to give their opinions
sincerely. If the seriousness of the matter requires it, they are obliged carefully to
maintain secrecy, and the Superior can insist on this obligation.
Can. 128 Whoever unlawfully causes harm to another by a juridical act, or indeed by any
other act which is deceitful or culpable, is obliged to repair the damage done.